How One Can Purchase Legit Steroids Online

Legit steroids are safe, genuine and authentic drugs, which are approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Legit steroids are also called ‘legitimate steroids.’ It is always better to buy legit steroids from genuine drug stores.

There are over 100 steroid types, but only a few steroids are approved by FDA for human and veterinary use. Some of the legit steroids include Clenbuterol, Femara/Letrozole, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Nolvadex, Testosterone Propionate, Trenbolone, Insulin, Anavar, Andriol, Anadrol, Bionabol, Boldenone, Testosterone Suspension (Aquaviron), Nandrolone Phenylpropionate (NPP), Sustaretard, Nandrolone Decanoate (K.Mediana), Testosterone Enanthate (Testoviron Depot Schering), Norma Hellas Nandrolone Decanoate etc.

You can easily buy legit steroids from your nearby drugstore, or with the help of Internet. However, it is very important to make sure, if the drug store that you choose sells legit steroids or not. You should always buy legit steroids for legitimate purposes; don’t abuse them for enhancing your performance level or gaining muscle mass.

Internet is a simple, easy, straightforward and reliable method to buy legit steroids. There are loads of websites on the Internet helping you buy legit steroids within few clicks. There are also illegitimate pharmacies online that sell fake or counterfeit steroids online. Such drugstores attract buyers by offering them deep discount plans and other things. But, never buy fake steroids, it’s a crime and may also bring you near death bed.

When you are online to purchase steroids, you should first make complete research for legitimate drugstores selling real steroids with proper prescription. After that, you make your decision to buy legit steroids from a legitimate store. Online steroids’ shopping is also getting very popular among amateur and specialized muscle-builders. However if you are about to buy legit steroids, you should be very cautious. There are a lot of scammers out there. Often, jocks, wrestlers, body-builders, students and others will purchase fake steroids without prescription, from an illegal store.

Often, the online suppliers, selling fake steroids don’t have any Internet site, and they use only email to receive or fulfill orders. Their email address or URL is located on scammer lists. They can accept only wire payments, offer suspiciously low prices. So, be cautious and never turn your face towards these sites to buy steroids.

The online drug stores operating online should have online forms for buyers interested in buying steroids. You can easily buy legit steroids online by placing order after filling up this online form, and make payment thru credit card. It is not difficult to buy legit steroids online, but it requires some homework.
Legit steroids are safe, genuine and authentic drugs, which are approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Legit steroids are also called ‘legitimate steroids.’ It is always better to buy legit steroids from genuine drug stores.

There are over 100 steroid types, but only a few steroids are approved by FDA for human and veterinary use. Some of the legit steroids include Clenbuterol, Femara/Letrozole, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Nolvadex, Testosterone Propionate, Trenbolone, Insulin, Anavar, Andriol, Anadrol, Bionabol, Boldenone, Testosterone Suspension (Aquaviron), Nandrolone Phenylpropionate (NPP), Sustaretard, Nandrolone Decanoate (K.Mediana), Testosterone Enanthate (Testoviron Depot Schering), Norma Hellas Nandrolone Decanoate etc.

You can easily buy legit steroids from your nearby drugstore, or with the help of Internet. However, it is very important to make sure, if the drug store that you choose sells legit steroids or not. You should always buy legit steroids for legitimate purposes; don’t abuse them for enhancing your performance level or gaining muscle mass.

Internet is a simple, easy, straightforward and reliable method to buy legit steroids. There are loads of websites on the Internet helping you buy legit steroids within few clicks. There are also illegitimate pharmacies online that sell fake or counterfeit steroids online. Such drugstores attract buyers by offering them deep discount plans and other things. But, never buy fake steroids, it’s a crime and may also bring you near death bed.

When you are online to purchase steroids, you should first make complete research for legitimate drugstores selling real steroids with proper prescription. After that, you make your decision to buy legit steroids from a legitimate store. Online steroids’ shopping is also getting very popular among amateur and specialized muscle-builders. However if you are about to buy legit steroids, you should be very cautious. There are a lot of scammers out there. Often, jocks, wrestlers, body-builders, students and others will purchase fake steroids without prescription, from an illegal store.

Often, the online suppliers, selling fake steroids don’t have any Internet site, and they use only email to receive or fulfill orders. Their email address or URL is located on scammer lists. They can accept only wire payments, offer suspiciously low prices. So, be cautious and never turn your face towards these sites to buy steroids.

The online drug stores operating online should have online forms for buyers interested in buying steroids. You can easily buy legit steroids online by placing order after filling up this online form, and make payment thru credit card. It is not difficult to buy legit steroids online, but it requires some homework.
Legit steroids are safe, genuine and authentic drugs, which are approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Legit steroids are also called ‘legitimate steroids.’ It is always better to buy legit steroids from genuine drug stores.

There are over 100 steroid types, but only a few steroids are approved by FDA for human and veterinary use. Some of the legit steroids include Clenbuterol, Femara/Letrozole, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Nolvadex, Testosterone Propionate, Trenbolone, Insulin, Anavar, Andriol, Anadrol, Bionabol, Boldenone, Testosterone Suspension (Aquaviron), Nandrolone Phenylpropionate (NPP), Sustaretard, Nandrolone Decanoate (K.Mediana), Testosterone Enanthate (Testoviron Depot Schering), Norma Hellas Nandrolone Decanoate etc.

You can easily buy legit steroids from your nearby drugstore, or with the help of Internet. However, it is very important to make sure, if the drug store that you choose sells legit steroids or not. You should always buy legit steroids for legitimate purposes; don’t abuse them for enhancing your performance level or gaining muscle mass.

Internet is a simple, easy, straightforward and reliable method to buy legit steroids. There are loads of websites on the Internet helping you buy legit steroids within few clicks. There are also illegitimate pharmacies online that sell fake or counterfeit steroids online. Such drugstores attract buyers by offering them deep discount plans and other things. But, never buy fake steroids, it’s a crime and may also bring you near death bed.

When you are online to purchase steroids, you should first make complete research for legitimate drugstores selling real steroids with proper prescription. After that, you make your decision to buy legit steroids from a legitimate store. Online steroids’ shopping is also getting very popular among amateur and specialized muscle-builders. However if you are about to buy legit steroids, you should be very cautious. There are a lot of scammers out there. Often, jocks, wrestlers, body-builders, students and others will purchase fake steroids without prescription, from an illegal store.

Often, the online suppliers, selling fake steroids don’t have any Internet site, and they use only email to receive or fulfill orders. Their email address or URL is located on scammer lists. They can accept only wire payments, offer suspiciously low prices. So, be cautious and never turn your face towards these sites to buy steroids.

The online drug stores operating online should have online forms for buyers interested in buying steroids. You can easily buy legit steroids online by placing order after filling up this online form, and make payment thru credit card. It is not difficult to buy legit steroids online, but it requires some homework.

About Bextra And Problems That Can Appear

About Bextra And Problems That Can Appear

If you experienced serious side effects because you used the drug called Bextra, you can search for an attorney, to help you get compensations from Bextra’s producer.
There are a lot of qualified Bextra attorneys, and they are ready to help you, so that you can make a legal claim for damages.

There were made studies, and it was discovered that among the patients who used Bextra, the number of heart attacks or strokes was 2.19 times greater than among patients that used placebo. It was found that Bextra’s risks are even higher than the risks developed by Vioxx, another drug belonging to the same class of COX-2 inhibitor drugs.
However, it was known from previous studies that the COX-2 inhibitor drugs can create heart troubles. This category of drugs was developed to cure pain without causing ulcers.

Although studies revealed that Bextra has serious side effects, and can provoke the apparition of heart attacks and strokes, Bextra’s manufacturer, Pfizer replyied that these accusations are unsubstantiated and must not be taken into serious. It also said that especially because they haven’t been published in a medical journal, the studies that were made should be categorized as irrelevant and unsubstantiated.

In 2004, because it was proven that Vioxx can cause the apparition of serious cardiovascular events, this COX-2 inhibitor was recalled from the market. Just a few weeks after this event, Pfizer, the producer of Bextra announced that two clinical trials showed heart bypass surgery taking Bextra developed a higher risk of stroke and heart attack.

A regular use of Bextra can lead to the apparition of a heart attack, or cardiovascular problems like angina, congestive heart failure, stroke or high blood pressure.
If that happens, you should contact an experienced and qualified lawyer, preferably one that had similar cases before.
You must know that you can receive compensations from Bextra’s manufacturer, but for this, you need immediate legal assistance, provided by a good lawyer.
Also, it is good to know that there might be time limits within you must file your lawsuit. If the time limit expires, it is possible that your claim for damages will not be taken in consideration.

Usually, before starting a treatment using Bextra or other COX-2 inhibitor drugs, the doctor should discuss with the patient, tell him about the side effects, and together they should analyze if the benefits this drug brings worth the exposure to the risks. The doctor should take in consideration patient’s opinion too.
Another thing that the patient should do is to be very vigilant, and to tell the doctor right away if he experiences any symptom. The doctor will know then what should be done, and it is possible that he will change the medication.

Risk Of Strokes Due To Chiropractic Care For Migraine

Risk Of Strokes Due To Chiropractic Care For Migraine

Chiropractic has been proven good in the treatment of migraine headaches, and this has been proven true for past over 100 years. Although recently, a few reports by biased so-called medical experts indicate that chiropractic treatments for the cervical spine in certain ways, may result in possibility of strokes. Actually the statistics prove that chiropractic care sometimes is capable of decreasing the likelihood of is chemic strokes. Generally, migraine headaches are sometimes seen in connection with increased chances of is chemic strokes.

As analyzed by legitimate chiropractic research, Chiropractic Jacksonville treatments and the risk of strokes caused by chiropractic should be compared with the prescribed and non-prescribed drugs, which are known to give rise to the incidences of cerebrovascular and is chemic strokes. The risk of strokes due to chiropractic is extremely low as per the result of the comparison and is generally considered to be the safest treatment for headaches due to migraine. Not only the safety, but it’s effectiveness in migraine headache treatments is the highest as compared with drugs and other treatment options.

As per the recent studies and surveys, the most common treatments for migraine such as drugs and surgery cause much larger numbers of strokes every year than those caused by chiropractic care. For instance, every year the number of cases of strokes occurred due to bypass surgery in the U.S. is much higher than the total number of cases of strokes reported for more than 100 years occurring due to or as a side effect of any chiropractic treatment. Various drugs and therapies such as hormonal replace therapy, contraceptive and birth control medicines and, steroids also result in the increased likelihood of strokes. Risk of strokes is much higher in cases when such drugs are recommended to the people with bad health and medical conditions like, hypertension, smoking, alcohol abuse, or diabetes. Not only the above drugs, but also the medicines especially used for the treatment of migraine headaches are even worse as far as the risk of is chemia and strokes is concerned. It can be easily understood that the chiropractic care is generally the most effective treatment and safest treatment for most types of migraine headaches.

In fact, chiropractors are trained to recognize certain factors which are evaluate the risk for certain neck adjustments. When using solid clinical judgment, chiropractic treatment has even less risk than taking aspirin for a headache.

Epitol Drug Information – Uses, Side Effects For Epitol Medication

What is Epitol and for what Epitol is used?

Epitol is an “extended-release” form of carbamazepine, which means that the medicine is released into the body slowly instead of all at once. Epitol is used to aid in the treatment of epilepsy. TEGRETOL is another name for it.

Epitol is used to treat seizures and nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Epitol medications is not for common aches and pains.

How to Take Epitol

Take Epitol exactly as prescribed by health care provider. Epitol is available in CAPSULE form. Take this medicine after food. Do not stop Epitol medication without the advice of your doctor; doing so may result in an increase in seizures. The Tegretol, Tegretol XR, and Epitol brands of Epitol should be taken with food. The Epitol brand of Epitol may be taken with or without food.

What are the Side Effects of Epitol –

Like other medicines, Epitol can cause side effects. Some of the more common side effects of Epitol include

* mouth ulcers
* pain or difficulty passing urine
* redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth
* ringing in the ears
* seizures (convulsions)
* shortness of breath, wheezing
* skin rash, hives, itching
* sore throat
* Sleepiness/drowsiness
* Coordination difficulties
* Rash or other allergic reaction (swollen glands, fever, sore throat).
* Weakness of the bones (osteopenia)
* stomach pain
* swollen joints or muscle/joint aches and pains
* unusual bleeding or bruising
* unusual swelling
* vomiting

Some other side effects of Epitol are as:

* Liver problems
* Blood problems
* Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Epitol intraction with other drugs:

Epitol is metabolized in the liver and interacts with several other epilepsy drugs and other medications, such as warfarin, theophyline, and doxycycline. It may reduce the effectiveness of other antiepileptic drugs which are also processed through the liver and with the effectiveness of birth control pills at standard doses. Tell your doctor if you are taking other drugs.

Warnings and precautions before taking Epitol :

* If you are taking carbamazepine for epilepsy (seizures) do not stop taking it suddenly. This increases the risk of seizures. Wear a Medic Alert bracelet or necklace. Carry an identification card with information about your condition, medications, and prescriber or health care professional.
* Epitol capsule must not be used during pregnancy as it may cause harmful side effects to the unborn child. Seek medical advice from your doctor.
* Talk with your physician or pharmacist if you are taking other medications along with Epitol.
* Breast Feeding – Mothers who are taking Epitol and who wish to breast-feed should discuss this with their doctor.
* Do not drink alcohol while taking Epitol. Alcohol may increase drowsiness caused by Epitol. It may also increase the risk of seizures.
* The safety and efficay of this medicine have not been studied in children and adolescents, hence it is not recommended for use in these age groups.

What if Overdose of Epitol ?

If you think you or anyone else taken overdose of Epitol, immediately telephone your doctor or contact your local or regional Poisons Information Centre Seek medical attention immediately. You may need urgent medical attention.

What if Missed Dose of Epitol?

If you miss a dose of Epitol medicine and you remember within an hour or so, take the dose immediately. If you do not remember until later, skip the dose you missed and go back to your regular schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage Conditions for Epitol:

Store Epitol capsules at room temperature (below 77°F) and protect them from light and moisture. Keep the medication away from the children.

Renadex – Male Enhancement Drugs

What is Renadex?

Renadex is an all natural Male Enhancement product for men. Unlike other male enhancement products on the market today, Renadex consists of only natural herbs and minerals designed to stimulate the male labido for a bigger, fuller sexual experience.

From clinical research and buyer testimonials it is clear that Renadex is rapidly becoming the number one choice amongst adult men seeking to highten and brighten their sexual needs. This five star formula is fast becoming the talk of the town.

Renadex Ingredients

The success of any male enlargement product lies in the ingredients contained within the formula. Maca, Tribulus, Yohimbe, Horny Goat, Toncat, Catuaba, and Muira Puama for example have proven themselves in tests to be safe and effective. Better yet, they aid in blood flow to the penis tissues to create the desired effects.

Renadex Ingredients – (beware if you’re alergic to shell fish)

Do not take Renadex if you are known to have alergic reations to shell fish. Renadex does contain an oyster extract. Always read the label if you are unsure. Renadex also contains Yohimbe which has shown to increase blood pressure so be sure to talk to with your doctor if you are unsure. All in all though the ingredients in Renadex are extremely safe and FDA approved. Yohimbe for example is and FDA approved ingredient in the U.S.

How Does Renadex Work?

Renadex works by stimulating penile blood flow and physically enduces more blood to flow into the penis tissues. This increases the penis size before and after love making and some men have reported as much as 25% bigger and fuller erections in length and girth. Since Renadex is forumated as an all natural product, the ingredients work synergistically to stimulate blood flow to the tissues yet without any damaging side effects associate with well know synthetic pharmaceuticals.

How To Take Renadex?

Take Renadex two times a day, if possible after a main meal. Renadex should be taken within half an hour after eating lunch and then dinner. A healthy eating regimen should be followed and positive effects should appear within the first few days after dosing. Does Renadex work for every man? It cant be said that it does, keep in mind every one is different and Readex is not guaranteed to work for everyone the same way. Results may vary from individual to individual but usually the benefits are mostly similar. The best way to try Renadex is by trying the Free offer.

Sexual Dysfunction In Men?

Renadex is a great aid for adult men who suffer from dysfunction troubles such as premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction. In most cases you will find that these problems are a thing of the past in fact 7 of 10 men report that these conditions are completely elimiated. If you have been experiencing these conditions try Renadex for 30 days for free and test the product for yourself. I think you will be amazed at the results.

The success rate of the formula is highly impressive, and you can get a free 30-day trial to prove it to yourself.
A 30 day supply costs only $3.95 S/H to anywhere in the U.S and Canada. Regrettably, Renadex is not available outside of the United States however Virility Ex is. The products are similar, almost identical in fact so if you live elsewhere you can give Vilirty Ex a try for almost the same price. The trial offers are perfect which lets you to try the products for almost no out of pocket expense.

Comprehensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse Screening Test (CDAAST)

The Comprehensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse Screening Test (CDAAST)

Client Name: ___________________________________________________ Date: ________________

Directions: The following questions concern information about your involvement with drugs and/or alcohol. Carefully read each statement. Then decide whether your answer is YES or NO and check the appropriate space. Please be sure to answer every question.

1. Alcohol or drug use caused me to use poor judgment and drive right afterwards because I felt “fine” to drive, wasn’t far to go, and I had no other way home: ___ Yes ___ No

2. I thought I was okay to drive after drinking and/or using drugs but I wasn’t: ___ Yes ___ No

3. I got a 2nd, 3rd, or 4th DUI after swearing it would never happen again: ___ Yes ___ No

4. I could kill somebody if I’m driving impaired: ___ Yes ___ No

5. I completed one or more alcohol or drug abuse treatment programs, yet I couldn’t drink just 1 or 2 drinks every time so ended up getting in trouble after drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

6. I believe that since I was able to quit drinking or using for awhile (after drinking and/or using caused me problems) and I don’t crave it, miss it, or even think about it, I now don’t have a drinking or drug problem: ___ Yes ___ No

7. I think about drinking or using drugs daily: ___ Yes ___ No

8. I drink use drugs to keep the buzz (good feeling): ___ Yes ___ No

9. I like to drink or use too much: ___ Yes ___ No

10. When I pick up the first drink and/or drug I think about the next one: ___ Yes ___ No

11. When I pick up the first drink I really enjoy the taste: ___ Yes ___ No

12. I like the feeling alcohol and/or drugs gives me when I’m under its power: ___ Yes ___ No

13. I know I shouldn’t drink and use drugs but I do it anyhow: ___ Yes ___ No

14. I can’t predict what will happen after I drink and/or use the first drug: ___ Yes ___ No

15. It’s tough to do the right thing while drinking using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

16. My decision making process becomes irrational and my behavior and personality changes when I drink and/or use drugs. I argue a lot when I drink and/or use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

17. I’m not honest when I drink use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

18. Occasionally I drink or use too much and get into trouble. I have said and done things that I normally wouldn’t have done when sober: ___ Yes ___ No

19. I got nasty or goofy when I drank and/or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

20. I do not have the self control to know when enough is enough: ___ Yes ___ No

21. When I drink or use drugs I can’t control myself the way I do when sober: ___ Yes ___ No

22. When I start drinking using drugs I don’t want to stop: ___ Yes ___ No

23. I sometimes have trouble stopping after 1 or 2 drinks: ___ Yes ___ No

24. I can never have just one drink: ___ Yes ___ No

25. I continue to drink and use once I get started: ___ Yes ___ No

26. Sometimes I drink use drugs more than I should: ___ Yes ___ No

27. I think about drinking and/or using drugs more than I should: ___ Yes ___ No

28. I can’t stop my craving or desire to drink and/or use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

29. I drink or use drugs too often: ___ Yes ___ No

30. I drink and use drugs too much: ___ Yes ___ No

31. I passed out from drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

32. I drank and used drugs a lot while alone: ___ Yes ___ No

33. I drank used drugs at a friends house and he or she got upset with me: ___ Yes ___ No

34. Drinking and drugging and the consequences of drinking drugging has taken up too much time in my life: ___ Yes ___ No

35. I have been hospitalized for drinking using drugs and could have died: ___ Yes ___ No

36. I have a hard time having a good time without drinking using: ___ Yes ___ No

37. I have drunk and/or used drugs a lot on occasions and still functioned okay: ___ Yes ___ No

38. I sometimes drink and/or use drugs to get drunk or plastered: ___ Yes ___ No

39. I have wasted a lot of time and money drinking and/or using: ___ Yes ___ No

40. I like to get wasted every time I drink use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

41. I have been on drinking drug using binges for 2 or more days in a row: ___ Yes ___ No

42. I have missed out on important events while drinking and/or using: ___ Yes ___ No

43. I have missed out on the memories of vacations when I drank and/or used: ___ Yes ___ No

44. I threw up while drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

45. I have passed out while drinking and/or using drugs and didn’t come home: ___ Yes ___ No
46. I could never walk out of a bar unless it closed or I passed out: ___ Yes ___ No

47. Someone said, “I let a stranger take me home when I was drinking and/or using: ___ Yes ___ No

48. My bartender knows my name and my usual drink: ___ Yes ___ No

49. I switched from hard liquor to beer and wine but that didn’t help: ___ Yes ___ No

50. I like to party and drinking and/or drugging at parties usually gets me in trouble: ___ Yes ___ No

51. I can’t meet decent members of the opposite sex while drinking and/or drugging: ___ Yes ___ No

52. I said or did things while drinking drugging that I regretted later: ___ Yes ___ No

53. Drinking or drugging caused me to bring up the past and make matters worse: ___ Yes ___ No

54. My sex life has suffered due to my excessive drinking and drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

55. I have slept with very ugly men and/or women while drinking and or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

56. My drinking and/or drug use has resulted in unprotected sex and or a child: ___ Yes ___ No

57. I cheated on my wife or husband while drinking or doing drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

58. When I was drunk or using drugs I got pregnant or I got someone pregnant
when I didn’t want to: ___ Yes ___ No

59. I had an abortion or someone I got pregnant had an abortion due to my drinking
or drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

60. My drinking and/or drug use has kept me from having positive experiences, it lessened my school and business opportunities and I have shown up at important meetings after using drugs or with alcohol on my breathe: ___ Yes ___ No

61. My drinking drug use has caused me public embarrassment: ___ Yes ___ No

62. My drinking drug use has caused a decline in my job performance: ___ Yes ___ No

63. I have missed classes due to being too hung over to go: ___ Yes ___ No

64. I didn’t complete projects when I drank or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

65. I have doubted my business decisions when I drank or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

66. My boss has noticed alcohol on my breath and has been concerned: ___ Yes ___ No

67. My boss has said my career was in jeopardy due to my drinking and/or drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

68. I needed to drink and/or use drugs to reward myself at the end of my work day: ___ Yes ___ No

69. I needed to drink and/or use drugs to be able to fall asleep: ___ Yes ___ No

70. I needed to drink and/or use drugs to function: ___ Yes ___ No

71. My drinking has triggered other drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

72. I drank or used drugs in the morning: ___ Yes ___ No

73. I hid bottles of alcohol: ___ Yes ___ No

74. I have sneaked drinks: ___ Yes ___ No

75. My drinking and or drug use has caused me to worry a lot. ___ Yes ___ No

76. Drinking and/or drug use has caused me to lose my temper and I said or did things I regretted later: ___ Yes ___ No

77. I drank and/or did drugs to forget problems, needed it to relax, go to sleep, handle anger, stress, loneliness, depression, and just to cope with life: ___ Yes ___ No

78. I drank and or used drugs to get rid of a hangover or self medicate: ___ Yes ___ No

79. When I drank and/or used drugs I didn’t think about the consequences: ___ Yes ___ No

80. When I drank and/or did drugs I stole someone’s prescription medications: ___ Yes ___ No

81. I continue to drink and or use drugs because I like it although it gets me in trouble: ___ Yes ___ No

82. I’m not always responsible when I drink or use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

83. My drinking and or drug use has always caused negative consequences: ___ Yes ___ No

84. I have stolen from others while drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

85. I have a loss of respect from others due to my drinking and/or drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

86. I have lowered my standards due to my drinking: ___ Yes ___ No

87. My drinking and/or drug use has cost me a lot of money: ___ Yes ___ No

88. I have threatened death by doing crazy dangerous things while drinking
and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

89. Due to money I have spent on drinking and/or drugs, and associated problems caused by my drinking or drug use, I didn’t have enough money to pay the bills: ___ Yes ___ No

90. I got into physical fights easier when I was drinking and or using drugs,
I wouldn’t walk away: ___ Yes ___ No

91. I got beat up while drinking and or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

92. I hurt others emotionally and or physically when I drank and/or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

93. I got stabbed/shot and almost lost my life when I was drinking and or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

94. My drinking and or drug use has caused me to break the law other than a
possession charge: ___ Yes ___ No

95. My drinking and/or drug use has put me in jail or prison other than a sales or
possession charge: ___ Yes ___ No

96. I went to jail in pajamas, drunk: ___ Yes ___ No

97. I prefer to hang out with heavy drinkers and/or drug users: ___ Yes ___ No

98. I trusted the wrong friends when I drank and used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

99. I have said the wrong thing to the wrong person at the wrong time while
drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

100. My drinking or drug use made me act like a jerk: ___ Yes ___ No

101. My drinking or drug use has affected my self respect, health, job,
and reputation: ___ Yes ___ No

102. I look at people differently when I drink or use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

103. I lied to my friends when I drank and/or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

104. My personality changes when I drink and/or use drugs. I get moody
or argumentative: ___ Yes ___ No

105. I missed the social drinker that I use to be: ___ Yes ___ No

106. I didn’t like me when I drank and/or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

107. My drinking and/or drug use has disappointed a lot of people in my life: ___ Yes ___ No

108. My drinking or drug use has caused family scorn – I’m the family outcast: ___ Yes ___ No

109. My drinking and drug use has caused family embarrassment and a loss of respect from others: ___ Yes ___ No

110. I don’t pay attention to important things when I drink and use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

111. I repeatedly did not come home to my family until Sunday after blowing
the Friday paycheck: ___ Yes ___ No

112. I fell into the water while drinking and/or using drugs and could have easily
drowned: ___ Yes ___ No

113. I have not come home after drinking or drugging a lot: ___ Yes ___ No

114. I hid my drinking or drug use from others: ___ Yes ___ No

115. Several family members, even my kids, have seen me drunk or passed out
after drinking and drugging: ___ Yes ___ No

116. My children have told me they are worried about my drinking and drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

117. I have become a negative role model for my children due to drinking
or drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

118. I repeatedly disappoint my children and family when I drink or use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

119. I passed out when I went to see my kids: ___ Yes ___ No

120. I have lost relationships with my kids due to my drinking and drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

121. My family tree is full of people with drinking or drug problems: ___ Yes ___ No

122. I worry about passing on my drinking and/or drug problem to my kids: ___ Yes ___ No

123. I often became rude or loud when I drank and/or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

124. I woke up in a place that I shouldn’t have been: ___ Yes ___ No

125. My friends started avoiding me when I started drinking or drugging a lot: ___ Yes ___ No

126. My drinking and/or drug use has caused verbal and or physical fights: ___ Yes ___ No

127. I made passes with other men and or women in front of my significant other while I was drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

128. A significant person in my life has threatened to leave me or has left me due to my drinking and/or drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

129. I drank and/or used drugs a lot to handle the breakup of a significant relationship: ___ Yes ___ No

130. My drinking and/or drug use has caused or has made my health problems worse: ___ Yes ___ No

131. I picked up diseases when drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

132. My drinking and/or drug use has caused malnutrition due to skipping meals: ___ Yes ___ No

133. My drinking or drug use has caused me to be lonely: ___ Yes ___ No

134. My drinking and/or drug use has caused me shame, loss of dignity, and guilt: ___ Yes ___ No

135. Drinking or drug use can increase symptoms of my mental problems: ___ Yes ___ No

136. My drinking and/or drug use has caused me to be forgetful: ___ Yes ___ No

137. My drinking or drug use caused others to get my car keys so I wouldn’t drive: ___ Yes ___ No

138. I have had blackouts, shakes, or DT’s due to drinking: ___ Yes ___ No

139. I have urinated in my pants while drinking or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

140. I threw up blood after drinking: ___ Yes ___ No

141. Drinking or drug use has changed my appearance for the worse: ___ Yes ___ No

142. I drank on medication that says, “avoid alcohol”: ___ Yes ___ No

143. My drinking and drug use has hurt, injured, or killed others: ___ Yes ___ No

144. I committed battery on a police officer after drinking and drugging: ___ Yes ___ No

145. My drinking and/or drug use has injured me: ___ Yes ___ No

146. Drinking or drug use has ruined a lot of years of my life: ___ Yes ___ No

147. Alcohol and/or drugs have made a mess out of my life: ___ Yes ___ No

148. I have become homeless due to my drinking or drug use: ___ Yes ___ No

149. I have had thoughts of suicide while drinking or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

150. I will fall back to drinking or drug use if I don’t have a good recovery plan: ___ Yes ___ No

The Comprehensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse Screening Test (CDAAST) was developed in 2012. The CDAAST is one of the most comprehensive screening tools for drug and/or alcohol abuse. This is a 150-item self-report scale that consists of items that parallel instruments such as the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). The (CDAAST) has “exhibited valid psychometric properties” and has been found to be “a sensitive screening instrument for the abuse of drugs and/or alcohol. Scoring and interpretation: A score of “1” is given for each YES response, except for items 4, 6, 11, 12, 17, 19, 33, 44, 52, 100, 110, ” Cutoff scores of 6 are optimal for screening for substance use disorders. Using a cutoff score of 6 provides excellent sensitivity for identifying patients with substance use disorders as well as satisfactory specificity (i.e.,
identification of patients who do not have substance use disorders). A score over 12 is definitely a substance abuse problem. Publisher: Charles V. Smith LMHC, LMFT, CAP, NCC Copyright January, 2012

Charles Vaughan Smith is a counselor in private practice in Clearwater, Florida

The Comprehensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse Screening Test is a tool that can be used in treatment of alcohol and drug abuse disorders. This is not only a screening instrument but it is also a very good educational resource. Those who suffer from alcohol and drug addiction are often in the denial or pre-contemplation stage of their addiction before getting help. This instrument can help the person see more clearly the seriousness of their addiction.

Motivational Interviewing which was developed by William Miller Ph.D and Stephen Rollnick, Ph.D. is one of the most successful counseling techniques used to treat addictive disorders. The approach attempts to increase the client’s awareness of the potential problems caused, consequences experienced, and risks faced as a result of the addictive behavior. The CDAAST can also be used as a tool to bring the person who has a substance abuse problem up on their awareness. The first step in drug and alcohol treatment is for the person to realize and admit that they have a substance abuse problem. Charles Vaughan Smith has been working in the substance abuse treatment field for over 20 years and has a private practice in Clearwater, Florida

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Did Nixon Get the War on Drugs Right? Michael Massing’s The Fix

The Fix by Michael Massing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000, 335 pp., $25.00.

The dust jacket of Michael Massing’s The Fix summarizes his thesis in bold red letters: “Under the Nixon Administration, America Had an Effective Drug Policy. WE SHOULD RESTORE IT. (Nixon Was Right).” That is a pretty extraordinary claim to make regarding an administration that gained office in large part through the “Southern Strategy” that had at its heart Nixon’s declaration of a “War on Drugs” and whose policies created the cocaine epidemic that caused so many new concerns a decade later. At most, I would agree that the Nixon administration’s pursuit of a fundamentally bad policy included some worthwhile efforts that have been devalued by every subsequent administration. This was not because Nixon or his closest advisers were right about drug policy but because Nixon was more interested in foreign policy issues and his benign neglect of domestic policy allowed a number of positive developments to blossom in the midst of the mire of incompetence and corruption that characterized his presidency.

Perceptively concluding that “policies being formulated in Washington today bear little relation to what is taking place on the street,” Massing attempts to depict the real effects of drug policy at the street level. Unfortunately, he doesn’t rely on the epidemiologic evidence or read the careful analyses conducted by researchers like myself who have systematically examined what is truly taking place on the street. Instead he relies on the journalist’s usual — and usually misleading — tool of dramatic anecdotes.

Massing’s anecdotal case is presented through the stories of Raphael Flores and Yvonne Hamilton. Flores runs Hot Line Cares, a drop-in center for addicts in Spanish Harlem. Hot Line Cares, which Flores founded in 1970, is essentially just a cramped office in of an otherwise abandoned tenement where Flores and his staff advise and assist addicts who want to get into treatment. Given the fragmented state of drug abuse treatment in New York City, and in most other American communities, it is no easy task to connect addicts with appropriate care and even harder to connect them with adequate aftercare. Massing writes, “If a Holiday Inn is full, it will at least call the Ramada down the street to see if it has a vacancy. Not so two treatment programs”

Yvonne Hamilton is a crack addict trying to get her life together. Massing describes her trials and tribulations as she copes with her illness and makes her way through New York City’s treatment non-system. It is an affecting story and well told. The author presents it as an argument for treatment and perversely as an argument against decriminalization or legalization. But she is one of the many examples that show that prohibition does not prevent addiction. And improvements in her drug problem seem to have less to do with the treatment she did receive than with changes in her life situation.

These two lives provide a touchstone to which his narrative will later return. The middle third of the book shifts dramatically in tone as Massing chronicles the evolution of the war on drugs in Washington. During Nixon’s tenure, the government spent more money on treatment (the “demand” side) than on stopping drug trafficking (the “supply” side), which he argues led to declines in both drug overdoses and crime rates. As successive presidents felt pressure to emphasize the “war” rather than treatment, he asserts that the number of chronic addicts skyrocketed. In the third and last section Massing returns to Spanish Harlem, where Hamilton continues a difficult struggle to remain drug-free and Flores struggles to keep his center afloat and to keep from falling into addiction himself.

It is the second part of the book that is the heart of Massing’s thesis. It is a tale that is familiar to those of us who are active in the field of drug policy and, in addition to scholars, other journalists have told it before — Dan Baum (1996) and Mike Gray (1998) doing so particularly well — but I will summarize (with some details Massing missed or left out) the history of drug policy under Nixon for the reader who is not familiar with the story.

In 1968, as Richard Nixon was making his comeback run for the presidency, he adopted the “Southern Strategy” that has been the key to Republican victories in presidential races ever since. Since the end of Reconstruction every Democratic presidential candidate had been able to rely on the votes of the “solid South” but the Northern Democrats’ support for civil rights had been the cause of increasing disaffection in the South, as epitomized by Strom Thurmond’s independent run for President against Truman in 1948. Then, in 1964, Alabama Governor George Wallace’s bid for the Democratic nomination for President showed that racism won votes in the North as well as the South. Nixon wanted to win the South, as well as racists’ votes in the North, without offending more traditional Republican voters by an openly racist campaign. The answer Nixon and his advisers found was to campaign against crime, which most Americans quite falsely equated with minorities. So what if the crime rate was actually declining, Americans seem to always believe that crime is increasing just as they seem to always blame it on cultural or racial outsiders.

Even better than campaigning against crime, the Nixon team soon realized, was campaigning against drugs. Most Americans, again falsely, equated drug users with violent criminals. Better still, for that great “silent majority” whose votes they sought a campaign against drugs symbolized a campaign against both Blacks and much hated hippies and anti-war protestors. When Nixon declared “war on drugs” he was appealing to the basest elements of the American electorate and it worked, just as it has worked for other candidates since.

The success of his anti-crime/anti-drug campaign presented Nixon with a serious dilemma when he took office – people were expecting results. At first his administration considered admitting that constitutionally crime control was a state responsibility and proposing to act through support of training programs and grant-in-aid to state and local police forces, but his approach had little political pizzazz and was largely abandoned after it failed to impress the public. Nixon had some ideas of his own, such as a nationwide mandatory death penalty for selling drugs – a strategy that has been tried in Red China and in Singapore and has clearly failed in both nations – but fortunately he was more interested in foreign policy and left the search for a solution to the drug problem in the hands of John Ehrlichman and the White House Domestic Policy Council.

Within the Domestic Policy Council Egil “Bud” Krogh Jr., a young lawyer who is better remembered as the man who headed the White House “plumbers” of Watergate fame, was charged with responsibility for finding a way to visibly impact drugs and crime before the 1972 election. Massing portrays Krogh as something approaching the tragic hero of the tale, but I’m not sure that many other than Massing and Krogh himself hold such a positive view of his public service. In any case, it is true that Krogh played a key role in shaping both the good and the bad in the Nixon administration’s drug policies.

In one of his other roles as liaison to the government of the District of Columbia, Krogh had become acquainted with psychiatrist Robert Dupont who was running one of the early methadone maintenance programs in DC. Krogh was reluctant to accept a maintenance approach to addiction but he did see that it was the one approach that actually had some evidence of effectiveness. In June of 1970, Krogh sent the Council’s youngest lawyer Jeffrey Donfeld to visit methadone programs in New York and Chicago, including the first such program, which was directed by Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of Rockefeller University, and a “mixed modality” model developed by University of Chicago psychiatrists Jerome Jaffe and Edward Senay.

Donfeld was dubious about the claimed effectiveness of methadone treatment and even more dubious about its political acceptability – in terms that have since become familiar, he wondered if it would send the wrong message. Donfeld found Jaffe in particular to be “politically sensitive” to the emotional issues involved in methadone maintenance. Donfeld believed that the “mixed modality approach,” which he called “different strokes for different folks”, by offering a range of treatments that included detoxification, drug-free, and maintenance approaches, effectively masked the methadone program from political criticism.

Much as Raphael Flores is the hero of the first part of the book, Jerome Jaffe is Massing’s hero for the second part. Jaffe has described his meeting with an essentially clueless Nixon. He sidestepped Nixon’s idea of the death penalty for dealers and suggested that the one value of law enforcement might be in pushing up the street price of drugs and thus encouraging more addicts to seek treatment – this idea was later taken up by Peter Reuter of the Rand Corporation but his research showed that the effect of aggressive law enforcement on supply was essentially nil and on price was tiny.

Jaffe attempted to make four points in his meeting with the President an d each was to bear fruit in shaping the future of drug policy under Nixon. The first was the need for more research and evaluation of treatment. The expansion of a small division within the National Institute of Mental Health into a National Institute on Drug Abuse and a National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse grew in part out of this recommendation. Second, he noted that currently there were a dozen different federal agencies funding treatment that didn’t even talk to each other. He felt that coordination of all these efforts was needed in pursuit of a coherent national strategy. This led to the creation of the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention, which he was startled to find himself appointed director of, as the nation’s first “drug czar”. Third, given the extent of heroin addiction, he urged that methadone maintenance should not be restricted to a few small research projects but should be made widely available. Fourth, he urged that funding for treatment be dramatically increased. These last two points were at the heart of what Massing refers to as “The Fix”.

Jaffe’s first big White House assignment was to develop a plan for controlling the skyrocketing prevalence of heroin use among U.S. servicemen in Vietnam, which involved 10 to 15 percent of all GIs in Vietnam if not more. Pentagon policy was that heroin use was a crime and that any serviceman who used heroin should be arrested and prosecuted. The result of this was an over-burdened military justice system but no reduction in heroin use. Jaffe urged that the Pentagon should adopt a treatment approach instead of a punitive one.

Massing suggests that Jaffe’s solution relied for its effectiveness on the GIs’ overpowering desire to return to the United States. He advised the Pentagon to subject all GIs to urinalysis before shipping them home. GIs who tested positive for heroin would have to stay in Vietnam for detox. The military’s reaction to his plan was to object that it would play havoc with the complex logistics of troop movement, to which Massing reports that Jaffe replied, “I cannot believe that the mightiest army on Earth can’t get its troops to piss in a bottle” When his plan was implemented, Massing reports that the percentage of GIs using heroin quickly dropped by more than half.

Jaffe himself tells it quite differently. It appears that as an academic and researcher he was aware of the growing evidence that most heroin users do not become addicted and the early follow-ups showing that most of the troops who were addicted to heroin in Vietnam abstained successfully, and usually without any treatment, after returning home (Jaffe and Harris, 1974). He didn’t fool himself into believing that the urine screening program actually deterred heroin use among the troops while serving in Nam. What he expected was that once word of the urinalysis got around heroin using GIs who weren’t addicted would stop using for the last weeks before rotation home and only the truly addicted would be unable to do so and thus fail the urine test. This is apparently what happened but it gave the politically useful appearance of a far greater success. The classic follow-up study by Robins, et al. (1980) confirmed that most of the GIs who became addicted to heroin while serving in Vietnam recovered fully and permanently after returning to the US and also found that recovery rates were not improved by receiving treatment – a finding the implications of which I discussed in several publications of that period (Duncan, 1974, 1975, 1976 & 1977).

I believe that the rapid recovery of Vietnam addicts demonstrates that for most of the GIs who became addicted, heroin use served as a coping mechanism for dealing with the stress of serving in a war zone. The relief they obtained by using heroin served as a negative reinforcer and negative reinforcement produces powerful habituation. Once they returned home their heroin using behavior extinguished in an environment where for most of them it was no longer being reinforced. Those who persisted in their addiction, according to Robins, et al. (1980), were the ones who returned to conditions of poverty, an alcoholic parent, etc. – exactly the ones who would continue to need a stress reliever. Treatment was far less relevant than environmental change, which is what Moos and his coleagues have found to be true for alcoholism treatment (Moos, Finney, & Cronkite, 1990; Finney & Moos, 1992).

As Massing reports, Jaffe was able to convince the Nixon administration to increase funding for drug abuse treatment eightfold over what it had been when Nixon took office. For the only time so far since America began its failed experiment with drug prohibition, the treatment budget was larger (twofold) than that for drug law enforcement. Massing attributes a decline in narcotics-related deaths and in crime rates to this budget increase and a more than 300 percent increase in the number of persons in treatment. It would be nice for treatment advocates like me if that was true but no knowledgeable analyst is likely to agree that it is.

While more addicts in treatment probably played some role in reducing the numbers of narcotics-related deaths, there were two other factors that probably played a far greater role. First, was the introduction in 1971 of naloxone (Narcan®), a full narcotic antagonist, which replaced nalorphone (Nalline®), a partial narcotic antagonist, as the drug of choice for treating narcotic overdoses. Second, was the growing popularity of amphetamines and other stimulants resulting in them replacing heroin as the primary drug of addiction in America. This may also have contributed to the decreasing death rate in a tertiary fashion by reducing demand for heroin and therefore reducing the price and increasing the purity of heroin on the street which would reduce deaths that often result from allergic reactions to the impurities in illicit heroin.

There is strong evidence that the availability of methadone maintenance in a community with large numbers of heroin addicts will bring about a reduction in rates of property crimes, especially the burglaries and petty thefts that addicts most often engage in to raise money to support their habit. It is very likely that the expansion of this modality under Nixon and Jaffe did lower crime rates. Crime rates, however, were already trending downward and the continuation of that trend was probably more important than any government policy.

The gravest defect of The Fix lies in its tacit assumption that the general direction and goal of our nation’s current drug policy is fine and just needs some tinkering with its budget priorities in order to “fix” it. Well, Nixon didn’t fix it, nor will or can any future president. The goal of eliminating recreational drug use has never been achieved anywhere nor is there any good reason why society should be better for achieving such a goal.

I directed one of the early treatment centers to utilize the “mixed modality” approach that Jaffe advocated and I continue to believe in its value. The fragmented state of most treatment services today, so well illustrated by Massing’s two examples, certainly is a serious barrier to the effectiveness of treatment. So I would certainly agree with Massing that America would benefit greatly from both a return to greater funding for treatment and the use of multimodality treatment. But no public health problem can be adequately controlled through treatment, or secondary and tertiary prevention as we in public health prefer to call it. It is only through primary prevention that a problem as big as drug addiction can be meaningfully reduced. It certainly cannot be reduced by operating a system in which between a third and two-thirds of the current patients don’t need any treatment at all because their drug use is recreational and not addictive.

Effective primary prevention of drug abuse, however, has to be something far different from telling people to “just say no” and telling prophylactic lies to kids in D.A.R.E. classes. First of all, effective prevention (primary, secondary or tertiary) must focus on the actual problem of addiction rather than on all use of certain selected drugs. Most users of any of the widely used drugs, with the exception of nicotine users, are not addicted, are not at great risk of becoming addicted, are not doing any substantial harm to themselves, and aren’t harming anyone else by their use of the drug. Even a small proportion of tobacco smokers are not addicted and are not harming themselves by smoking. Society has no valid interest in preventing drug use but a very clear interest in preventing addiction.

Second, primary prevention cannot be achieved by scaring people — least of all by scaring them with lies. Programs like D.A.R.E. make a strong impression on many preadolescents and early adolescents who swear they are never going to use drugs but by their mid-teens most of them have learned through observation that much the D.A.R.E. officer told them was lies and they are not only ready to experiment with drugs but cynical in viewing any valid warnings they might receive from adults about real risks. Effective prevention must be based on facts not scare stories. Instead of insisting that kids should stay drug-free forever, which virtually no one in our society is or should be, we should be teaching them how to responsibly assess drugs and situations of use so that they can choose wisely what and when and how regarding drug use.

Criminalizing drugs and drug use makes all levels of prevention more difficult. No drug user or abuser is going to be better off for being arrested. Treatment in the criminal justice system is a good idea for those who are arrested for real crimes such as theft or assault but treatment in the criminal justice system is always fighting an uphill battle against the harm done by the system. Numerous studies have shown that any form of punishment for drug use increases the likelihood that the drug user will become or persist in being addicted.

Massing is a very fine journalist but he doesn’t have the background necessary to conduct a meaningful analysis of drug policy and its effects. You can’t learn to be a physicist by watching Nova specials and you aren’t going to gain much of an understanding of drug policy by reading books like The Fix. As an introduction to the problems in the field it has merit but I would recommend the equally well written journalistic accounts by Baum (1996) or Gray (1998).


Baum, D.(1996). Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure. New York: Little Brown.

Duncan, D. F. (1974). Reinforcement of drug abuse: Implications for prevention. Clinical Toxicology Bulletin, 4(2), 69-75.

Duncan, D. F. (1975). The acquisition, maintenance and treatment of polydrug dependence: A public health model. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 7(2), 207-213.

Duncan, D. F. (1976). Stress and adolescent drug dependence. Medical Science, 4, 381

Duncan, D. F. (1977). Life stress as a precursor to adolescent drug dependence. International Journal of the Addictions, 12 (8), 1047-1056.

Finney, J. W., and Moos, R. H. (1992). The long-term course of treated alcoholism: II. Predictors and correlates of 10-year functioning and mortality. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53 (2), 142-153.

Gray, M. (1998). Drug Crazy: How We Got Into this Mess and How We Can Get Out of It. New York: Random House.

Jaffe, J. H., and Harris, G. T. (1973). As far as heroin is concerned, the worst is over. Psychology Today, 85, 68-79, 85.

Moos, R. H., Finney, J. W., and Cronkite, R. C. (1990). Alcoholism Treatment: Context, Process, and Outcome. New York: Oxford University Press.

Robins, LN, Helzer, JE, Hesselbrock, M, and Wish, E. (1980). Vietnam veterans three years after Vietnam: how our study changed our view of heroin. In: L. Brill and C. Winick (Eds), The Yearbook of Substance Use and Abuse, vol. II. New York: Human Sciences Press, pp. 213-230.

David F. Duncan, DrPH, Clinical Associate Professor of Medical Science, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

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Drug Abuse and Addition

The world today has become surrounded by drug abuse as well as drug addiction. This escalating disorder has become so common, that its truth is based on misconceptions that people have concerning drug abuse as well as addiction. This paper briefly provides an overview of drug abuse as well as addiction, and at the same time looks at the aspects of epidemiology, social problems, pathophysiology, as well as ethical issues that might arise with medical emergency responders.

Drug abuse and drug addiction; exactly what does that mean and who is affected by it? There is a confusion between drug addiction and abuse. Drug abuse happens when there is usage of a substance, generally illicit drugs or alcohol, while drug addiction takes place in a broad variety of substances and activities. Addiction can be termed as the compulsive need for usage of substance forming habits, such as alcohol, nicotine and heroin, of which is eventually characterized by obviously physiological signs upon withdrawal as well as tolerance; widely: insistent compulsive use of known substances that are harmful to the user. Drug addiction is usually not a substance forming habit, it also includes things such as gambling, sex, video gaming, and even internet. All the same, the primary focus of society is still to do with drugs, tobacco and alcohol. Several characteristics of pathophysiology and epidemiology will be discussed together with the social implications that addiction causes as well as any ethical problems that lie with addiction and medical emergency service providers.

The addictive behavioral study is relatively new. Science just started to study behavioral addictiveness in the 1930. Prior to this, studies were being carried out by scientist on drug abuse that were plagued by misconception shadows as well as nature addiction. But with present day discoveries as well as information on how brain chemicals work and the methods of alteration, there is now a deeper understanding of alcohol and drug addiction. Drug addiction, according to Dr. Dryden-Edwards also referred to as chemical dependency or substance dependence, is an illness that is described by a destructive drug abuse pattern that leads to major problems which involve tolerance towards or substance withdrawal and other problems arising from substance use that could have implications to the sufferer, either by school performance, socially or in terms of work. More than 2.5% of humanity suffer from drug addiction at some point in their lives. Some of the commonly abused addictive substances are alcohol, anabolic steroids, amphetamines, cannabis, caffeine, ecstasy, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, nicotine, phencyclidine, opiates, sedatives, anti-anxiety drugs, and or hypnotic. Despite the fact that alcohol and drug addiction is viewed as a mental health issue, there is no one particular determinant cause. However, several people believe that drug addiction and abuse is a genetic disease of which is a false fact. A person’s environment is cause for the development of a predisposition dependency drug.


The socially associated risk factors of drug addiction and drug abuse encompass the male gender, between the age ranges of 18 and 44 years, heritage of Native American persons, low socioeconomic status as well as the marital status of the unmarried. State statistics reveal that residents from the western U.S are more at risk to substance dependency as well as abuse. While males are very prone to alcoholism development, females seem more vulnerable to alcoholism at fairly lower amounts of alcohol consumption, this is because females have a much lower body mass as compared to males. The combined medical, criminal, economical, as well as the social implications costs American taxpayer more than half a trillion dollars annually. Each year drug and alcohol abuses contributes to 100,000 American deaths, with tobacco contributes approximately 440,000 deaths annually. Individuals of all ages suffer the damaging consequences of drug as well as alcohol addiction and abuse. Babies can get affected while within the mother’s womb if the mother is to engage in drug or alcohol use, which as a result causes defects in birth as well as slows down the intellectual development in the later years of the child. As for Adolescents, they usually perform poorly in school and usually drop out while they are abusing drugs. Adolescent girls stand the risk of having unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and violence. In addition, parents and adults are also affected, usually by having their cognitive abilities clouded. With all the vast exposure, the stage has easily been set for the next generation to simply step into the addictive lifestyle.


Drug addiction primarily affects the brain, but also affects the flow of a person’s organ systems. Drugs as well as mind changing substances which can be abused usually target the body’s natural system of reward either willingly or unwillingly causing entire euphoric effects for the drug user. These effects arise from the dopamine, which is a regulated neurotransmitter movement, emotion, cognition, motivation and pleasure feelings. The release of Dopamine is naturally rewarded to the body for natural behaviors as well as initiations for the cycle to repeat the behavior all over. The dopamine neurotransmitter fills the reward system that is often concealed in restricted amounts from routine activities such as sex or eating. The brain perceives this as a life-sustaining action as a result of the activated reward system. On introducing the chemical substance within a person’s system and the euphoric effects are realized, a person’s brain takes note of several significant happening events and teaches itself to do this action repeatedly until it is a habit. The consumption of illicit drugs can cause an individual to impulsively act when the brain’s reasoning system would normally delay or prevent a form of given action.

This reasoning system is circumvented, hence leading to the undesired action that can possibly have negative consequences on the drug user’s life. However, several drug effects as well as chemical substances are at times euphoric, and other times the substance causes depression, suicidal thoughts, and paranoia. Continuation of the drug causes the brain to become acclimatized to the surplus of dopamine within the reward system. This then leads to the decrease of dopamine release as well as the dopamine receptors numbers within the system itself. In turn, this affects the user’s ability to attain the desired effects of the drug usage. This response from the person’s brain causes the person to try and reactivate the receptors by adding the dosage or amount of the drug in order to attain the same dopamine high. This effect process is referred to as a tolerance. Long term drug abuse causes changes to occur to other systems parts within the brain. The neurotransmitter glutamate of which is a part of the reward systems can be changed and hence cause learning inability. When the brain reaches the maximum level of glutamate, it causes an off balance and the brain tries to compensate, of which as a result affects the drug user’s cognitive ability. Once the brain accustoms to the drug effects, dependence is made and drug abuse cessation causes a result known as withdrawal. While most withdrawal signs are very uncomfortable for the drug addict, there are several serious signs such as seizures, strokes, myocardial infraction, delirium tremens, and hallucinations.

Social, Ethical issues as well as the impact on emergency medical services (EMS)

The consequences of drug abuse and addiction are very evident in an individual social life. The addictions destructive behavior affects every area of their personal life, right from the genesis of the drug abuse. The addictions symptoms from a physical perspective include alteration of sleeping patterns as well as eating habits, which in turn contribute to both weight gain as well as loss. Frequent drug abuse tends to lead to failure in meeting important responsibilities at work, school or even home. Other drug addiction effects include domestic violence, family disintegration, child abuse, employment loss, and failure in school. People with addiction engage in risk taking, and with alterations in the reward system within the brain, the drug users expect positive reactions prior to them taking the substance that would satisfy their needs for the risks they take. Impulse control is difficult when drug choice is available to people with addiction. As a result this fuels the addiction even more.

The effect of the emergency medical service is immense. The calls from addiction range from medical overdosage to trauma. The emergency medical provider’s obligation in response to overdosed patients requires paramedics to find out how much as well as what the patients took, and what is the correct medication to give in order to reverse the condition that is being experienced by the patient or drug user. With the various emergency responses comes danger, with the possibility of violent outbreaks by the addicts or users. Therefore, paramedics must be aware of their surroundings while handling the patients. In addition, patients who experience withdrawals tend to hallucinate a complete event as well as incorporate the paramedics, thus causing the patient to react violently towards the care provider. Drug addiction is a very serious condition that can be considered as a psychiatric problem, of which needs to be treated with a sure diligence as well as suspicion.

Within the realm of the emergency medical service, the response rate of addiction is not considered an emergency condition. The incident will arise if an addict is experiencing withdrawal violent signs or has substance overdose, and the patient would appear in a state of agitation or even unconsciousness. There is no prearranged method in handling a patient that is experiencing problems related to addiction. The key element is in treating the symptoms of the patient. All patients require supplementary oxygen through non rebreathe if tolerance is acceptable. To assist in flushing out a normal saline of infusion, obtaining of intravenous access is a must. Should a patient or addict be in a state of agitation or seizure, administration of a sedative is required, such as versed or valium. Caution must be taken when administrating benzodiazepines because of the risks regarding failure or respiratory depression is present. Should a patient experiencing an opiate overdose as well as low breathing, Narcan 0.4 – 2 milligrams must be administered, but caution must be observed when administering the drug of which is done slowly in order for the patient to breathe sufficiently so as to sustain life. Should breathing and airway problems continue then intubation must be considered in order to secure the airway of the patient. Quick transport with due concern is suggested in order for the patient to be evaluated so as to have the hospital staff commence detoxification.


The drug abuse and addiction world is unforgiving and harsh, especially if an addict or user is unwilling to leave it behind. A number of people claim that the addiction is all within the head, and research has verified this notion. The brain effects from a formed learned pattern is similarly rewarded to such activities like drinking or eating.

A lot of people do not comprehend as to how and why other people become drug addicts. It is wrongfully presumed that drug users have no willpower or moral principles and cannot stop using drugs simply by choosing to alter their behavior. The reality is, drug addiction and abuse is a complex illness, and quitting it requires lots of good intentions. In actual fact, because drugs alter the brain in ways that raise drug abuse compulsiveness, quitting becomes hard, even for the willing addicts.

A lot of drug users also believe that they can control their drug abuse and addiction. Having a drug habit is a costly affair that leads to loss of belongings, money and even self-esteem. Curiosity is what drives some people abuse drugs, while others it is peer pressure, and another group of people become addicts of prescription drugs. While drug abuse normally leads to drug addiction, overcoming drug addiction is no easy task. So the question begs, is this drug abuse or is this drug addiction? These are two completely separate paths that lead to the same depressing outcome. In addition, the consequences of drug abuse as well as drug addiction become noticeable after a given period of time whereby compulsiveness and violence take over, furthermore, the physical toll which includes illness and depression at times could be debilitating. Therefore, the only method to reducing drug abuse as well as addiction is through educating or sensitizing the public. Avoidance is viewed as the best prevention.

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Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Drug Delivery Systems


Pharmacotherapy can be defined as the treatment and prevention of illness and disease by means of drugs of chemical or biological origin. It ranks among the most important methods of medical treatment, together with surgery, physical treatment, radiation and psychotherapy. Although it is almost impossible to estimate the exact extent of the impact of pharmacotherapy on human health, there can be no doubt that pharmacotherapy, together with improved sanitation, better diet and better housing, has improved people’s health, life expectancy and quality of life.

Unprecedented developments in genomics and molecular biology today offer a plethora of new drug targets. The use of modern chemical synthetic methods (such as combinatorial chemistry) enables the synthesis of a large number of new drug candidates in shorter times than ever before. At the same time, a better understanding of the immune system and rapid progress in molecular biology, cell biology and microbiology allow the development of modern vaccines against old and new challenges.

However, for all these exciting new drug and vaccine candidates, it is necessary to develop suitable dosage forms or drug delivery systems to allow the effective, safe and reliable application of these bioactive compounds to the patient. It is important to realize that the active ingredient is just one part of the medicine administered to the patient and it is the formulation of the drug into a dosage form or drug delivery system that translates drug discovery and pharmacological research into clinical practice.

Indeed the drug delivery system employed plays a vital role in controlling the pharmacological effect of the drug as it can influence the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the rate of drug release, the site and duration of drug action and subsequently the side-effect profile. An optimal drug delivery system ensures that the active drug is available at the site of action for the correct time and duration.

Drug delivery systems

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

· Drug delivery systems according to the physical state

Based on physical state, drug delivery systems may be:

– Gaseous (e.g. anaesthetics),

– Liquid (e.g. solutions, emulsions, suspensions),

– Semisolid (e.g. creams, ointments, gels and pastes) and

– Solid dosage forms (e.g. powders, granules, tablets and capsules).

· Drug delivery systems according to route of administration

Another way of differentiating dosage forms is according to their site or route of administration.

– Parenteral drug delivery: Drugs can be administered directly into the body, through injection or infusion. Depending on the site of administration into the body it can be differentiated into:

a) Subcutaneous injection

b) Intramuscular injection

c) Intravenous injection

d) Intradermal injection

e) Intraperitoneal injection

– Oral drug delivery: The oral route is the most popular route to administer drugs. Suspensions, tablets, capsules,etc are administered through this route.

– Topical drug delivery: Drugs can also be administered on to the skin to enter into the body. Mostly semisolid dosage forms are used for this, including creams, ointments, gels and pastes. However, liquid dosage forms, such as emulsions, or solid dosage forms, such as transdermal controlled drug delivery systems (patches), can also be used.

– Transmucosal: In this drugs are administered hrough nasal, buccal/sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal routes.

· Drug delivery systems according to mechanism of drug release

Another system that can be used to differentiate drug delivery systems is according to the way the drug is released. It can be differentiated as:

– Immediate release – drug is released immediately after administration.

– Modified release – drug release only occurs sometime after the administration or for a prolonged period of time or to a specific target in the body. Modified-release systems can be further classified as:

a) Delayed release: drug is released only at some point after the initial administration.

b) Extended release: prolongs the release to reduce dosing frequency

– Sustained release: These systems maintain the rate of drug release over a sustained period of time.

– Controlled release: Controlled-release systems also offer a sustained-release profile but, in contrast to sustained-release forms, controlled-release systems are designed to lead to predictably constant plasma concentrations, independently of the biological environment of the application site. This means that they are actually controlling the drug concentration in the body, not just the release of the drug from the dosage form, as is the case in a sustained-release system.

– Targeted drug delivery (smart drug delivery): It is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. The goal of a targeted drug delivery system is to prolong, localize, target and have a protected drug interaction with the diseased tissue.

Disease and Design of drug delivery system

A disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of an organism. It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by factors originally from an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and a typical variations of structure and function.

Medical therapies are efforts to cure or improve a disease or other health problem. A number of drug molecules have already been developed but development of further more new drug molecule is expensive and time consuming. So, improving efficacy ratio of “old” drugs is considered a good idea. This has been attempted by developing new drug delivery systems that helps in individualizing drug therapy, dose titration, and therapeutic drug monitoring easily. Delivering drug at controlled rate, slow delivery, targeted delivery are very attractive methods and have been pursued vigorously. Drug delivery systems modify drug release profile, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety. It also ensures patient convenience and compliance.

There are some drug molecules which show site specific drug release eg, peptides and proteins. Such drugs cannot show their action without appropriate drug delivery system. So,the increasing number of peptide and protein drugs being investigated demands the development of dosage forms which exhibit site-specific release. Delivery of drugs into systemic circulation through colonic absorption represents a novel mode of introducing peptide and protein drug molecules and drugs that are poorly absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Oral colon-specific drug delivery systems offer obvious advantages over parenteral administration. Colon targeting is naturally of value for the topical treatment of diseases of the colon such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. Sustained colonic release of drugs can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma, angina and arthritis. Peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides and vaccines are the potential candidates of interest for colon-specific drug delivery. Sulfasalazine, ipsalazide and olsalazine have been developed as colon-specific delivery systems for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Worldwide, over 40 million people are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The High Activity Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) combines at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and, for over a decade, has been used to extend the lifespan of the HIV-infected patients. Chronic intake of HAART is mandatory to control HIV infection. The frequent administration of several drugs in relatively high doses is a main cause of patient incompliance and a hurdle toward the fulfillment of the pharmacotherapy. High adherence to HAART does not lead to complete HIV virus elimination from the host. Intracellular and anatomical viral reservoirs are responsible for the perpetuation of the infection. Active transport mechanisms involving proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily prevent the penetration of ARV drugs into the brain and may account for the limited bioavailability after oral administration. A new research that addresses from simple organoleptic or technological problems to more complex issues involving the targeting of specific tissues and organs has emerged. With the aim to reduce dosing frequency, to improve the compliance of the existing pharmacotherapy and to target viral reservoirs, the design of drug delivery systems is becoming complementary to new drug discovery.


Whenever a person suffers from a disease, he/she requires a medical treatment and every one of us prefer the safe, effective, economic and a convenient one. This can only be achieved by development of appropriate drug delivery system. No matter how dosage forms are classified, the role of the drug delivery systems is to allow the effective, safe, and reliable application of the drug to the patient.

For the proper Pharmacotherapy, delivery systems should allow and facilitate the drug to reach its target site in the body. For example, a tablet formulation containing an antihypertensive drug must disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract, the drug needs to dissolve and the dissolved drug needs to permeate across the mucosal membrane of the gastrointestinal tract into the body. So, for the development of dosage forms the formulation scientist needs to optimize the bioavailability of the drug.

Similarly, the delivery system is to allow the safe application of the drug. This includes that the drug in the formulation must be chemically, physically and microbiologically stable. Side-effects of the drug and drug interactions should be avoided or minimized by the use of suitable drug delivery systems. The delivery systems also need to improve the patient’s compliance with the pharmacotherapy by the development of convenient applications. For example, one can improve patient compliance by developing an oral dosage form where previously only parenteral application was possible.

Finally, the delivery system needs to be reliable and its formulation needs to be technically feasible. However, for any application of a drug delivery system on the market, the dosage form needs to be produced in large quantities and at low costs to make affordable medicines available. Therefore, it is also necessary to investigate the feasibility of the developed systems to be scaled up from the laboratory to the production scale.

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Sex and Drugs: Effects of Addiction on Sexuality

Sex and drugs always seems like a hot topic in the media and in nearly all social circles, but the reality of the situation is that sex and drugs can pose serious, lifelong consequences to those who engage in such behaviors simultaneously. There are always inherent risks associated with drug abuse, and unfortunately there are also serious risks involved with sex. This is true of each behavior independently, and it is a significantly exacerbated truth when the two are combined.

Some people might claim that sex and drugs “feel good” together, and for some this might be temporarily true. However, the fact of the matter is that this suggestion involves using drugs – a significant moral, health and legal dilemma in the United States. Additionally, most drugs of abuse are highly addictive, posing a serious problem for the short term and long term sexual health of the addict.

Ultimately, when drug abuse leads to addiction and sex is involved, the already inherent risks of both actions are greatly amplified, and could have lifelong consequences for those who engage in these behaviors. This can include unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, rape and sexual assault, prostitution and other violent crimes. If you’re having sex and you have a drug problem, then you’re at serious risk and should take immediate action to get help now. Sexuality is far too important of a human function to risk damaging permanently.

Libido – the Primary Impact of Sex and Drugs

Think using drugs will boost your libido? Think again.

One of the most common misconceptions about sex and drugs is that a person’s libido can be increased by abusing various substances. While this might be true of certain supplements and pharmaceutical drugs, it is not at all true of street drugs – including ecstasy. (Ecstasy deserves special mention because many people see it as a sex-enhancing drug, but these effects generally wear off quite quickly and leave the user uninterested in sex or incapable of performing or achieving orgasm.) There are three primary reasons that drugs negatively affect a person’s libido:

1.) Emotional Distress and other Substance Abuse Related Stress

When occasional drug use or drinking leads to addiction, sex is almost always affected. People with drug or drinking problems often struggle with emotional disorders such as depression or bipolar. While drug use appears to allow a way to self-medicate, it actually only worsens pre-existing conditions. Additionally, because drug abuse has moral, professional and legal taboos associated with it, there is a great deal of stress attached with using drugs.

Because stress decreases the average person’s libido, it’s perfectly logical to argue that drug and alcohol abuse will ultimately have a negative effect on human sexuality.

2.) Drug Seeking and Using is Exhausting, Time Consuming Behavior

Most people who are addicted to drugs or alcohol spend a significant portion of their time – perhaps all their time – finding drugs, actively using, hiding their drug use, and generating income (often illegally) in order to support their habit. All of this is extremely time consuming, and unless the drug user’s partner is also using drugs, most of these behaviors will necessarily need to occur away from any non-using partner. And because drug use itself is so exhausting and often leads to “passing out,” the opportunity and desire for sex may be significantly decreased.

3.) Physical Effects of Drugs can Cause Sexual Problems

Some drugs cause physical problems that may make it difficult or impossible to have sex. This can be something as benign as being unable to achieve erection as a result of alcohol consumption, to a complete lack of physical sensation, to other serious problems like pulmonary distress associated with use of opiates, or paranoia/fear associated with marijuana use. Severe issues like these can make it impossible to function normally from a sexual standpoint.

Sex and Drugs Lead to High Risk Sexual Behavior

Addiction and alcoholism are often breeding grounds for dangerous sexual behaviors

Just attend any AA or NA meeting, and you’ll hear countless horror stories related to sex and drugs. Because the drive for sex is nearly as powerful in a non-addicted person as the drive for drugs in some drug abusers, the two behaviors can often mix with damaging consequences including:

*Unwanted Pregnancies

Lowered inhibitions as a result of drug or alcohol abuse often coincide with reckless sexual decision making, such as the choice to not use a condom or other contraceptive. And when women who are addicted to drugs get pregnant, the person who suffers the most is often the unborn child. This is evidenced by recent reports that babies born addicted to drugs have skyrocketed in the United States in the last several years. This is because many women who are addicts do not seek out prenatal care and instead continue using drugs throughout their medically-unassisted pregnancy. Ultimately, women in this situation who successfully carry their babies to term (they often don’t) put their child at risk of being born addicted.

In many cases, babies born addicted to drugs are taken from their mother and placed in state care. Mothers can face criminal charges that may result in years behind bars.

*Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases spread rapidly through addict and drug abuser communities. Lowered inhibitions, desperation, unsanitary conditions and more can lead to an environment where drug users are significantly more prone to contract an STD than people who do not use drugs and have sex. And because many STDs are incurable, even one occasion of mixing sex and drugs or sex and alcohol can lead to a lifetime of medical complications.


Drug addiction is expensive. Many addicts spiral down into a hole created when they exhaust their savings, sell their belongings and then begin stealing from others in order to support their habit. But for some people, these actions either aren’t an option, or there’s nobody left in their lives to steal from. This makes it all too easy to turn to prostitution in order to continue to purchase and use drugs.

Prostitution also comes with a naturally increased rate of transmission of STD, unwanted pregnancies and sexual and drug related crimes.

Sex, Drugs and Violence

It happens. A lot.

When people mix sex and drugs or sex and alcohol, things often go terribly wrong. While this could be any of the things discussed earlier, it could also be any number of violent sexual acts or behaviors. This is especially true for addicts who engage in promiscuity or prostitution in order to feed their drug addictions.

People who use drugs are much more susceptible to rape and sexual assault. Because drugs are involved, it’s easy to become incapacitated and taken advantage of. And as a result of the illegal nature of drugs, many victims are too scared to report the crime because they fear repercussions themselves. Additionally, there is an unfortunate tendency by law enforcement and others to discount or dismiss reports of sexual crimes against drug addicts or alcoholics.

In a large number of cases the sexual damage from a rape or other sexually-related assault can present complications for years – or even permanently. This is important for current drug abusers to consider, because these problems are likely to still be present long after they’ve stopped using drugs and achieved sobriety.

Sexual assault and sexual violence against drug users isn’t gender specific – both men and women become promiscuous, practice prostitution and possibly become the victims of sexual attacks. If drugs are involved, the dangers are always much more significant.

Long Term Consequences of Sex and Drugs

If you engage in these behaviors, you could affect your sexual health for life

When it comes to sex and drugs, the risks simply do not justify what vague benefits are sold to people in order to continue this type of lifestyle. In effect, a person could ruin their sexual health permanently – even if they only used drugs for a short time. The following are the four most prominent long term consequences of sex and drug abuse:

1.) Disease

Sexually transmitted diseases like Herpes, Hepatitis and AIDS cannot be cured. Addicts who contract these diseases will be forced to cope with them for the rest of their lives. This is a serious consideration for people who are addicted now and keep saying that “one day” they’ll quit. That one day could be one day too late.

2.) Injury

Sexual assault and other sexual violence can result in permanent injuries that can impact a person’s sexuality.

3.) Sexual Disconnection

Years of drug abuse and sex may desensitize a person to the point that sex while sober isn’t appealing anymore. Additionally, sexual trauma or other bad experiences during active drug use periods may cause severe emotional damage that may make it hard for a person to become close to another person in a healthy sexual manner.

4.) Loss of an Important Relationship

Promiscuity, prostitution and infidelity during active drug use can lead to the loss of an important romantic and sexual relationship that you might not be able to repair once you’ve become sober. Additionally, drug use alone is often enough to end a relationship, so if you have someone that you care about now and you’re still using drugs, perhaps it’s time to stop, before you lose them…

Don’t let drug abuse and addiction ruin your sex life. Call the number below for an immediate, confidential consultation about restoring the balance in your life and beating addiction or alcoholism once and for all. Call us now or click here to speak to an expert about a drug rehab program now.

You can also read hundreds of comprehensive articles, check your insurance for drug rehab, or take part in a survey about post acute withdrawal syndrome – widely considered the leading cause of relapse.

This article and information is brought to you by James F. Davis and:

Recovery First, Inc
4110 Davie Road Ext Suite 203
Hollywood, FL 33024

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